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The Bundesliga was founded in in Dortmund and the first season started in The Bundesliga is composed of two divisions: Bundesliga although it is rarely referred to with the First prefix , and, below that, the 2.
Bundesliga 2nd Bundesliga , which has been the second tier of German football since The Bundesligen plural are professional leagues.
Since , the 3. Below the level of the 3. Liga, leagues are generally subdivided on a regional basis. Below this are thirteen parallel divisions, most of which are called Oberligen upper leagues which represent federal states or large urban and geographical areas.
The levels below the Oberligen differ between the local areas. The league structure has changed frequently and typically reflects the degree of participation in the sport in various parts of the country.
In the early s, changes were driven by the reunification of Germany and the subsequent integration of the national league of East Germany.
Every team in the two Bundesligen must have a licence to play in the league, or else they are relegated into the regional leagues.
To obtain a licence, teams must be financially healthy and meet certain standards of conduct as organisations. Bundesliga is financially strong, and the 2.
Bundesliga has begun to evolve in a similar direction, becoming more stable organizationally and financially, and reflecting an increasingly higher standard of professional play.
Hamburger SV was the only club to have played continuously in the Bundesliga since its foundation until 12 May , when the club was relegated for the first time.
In the —09 season, the Bundesliga reinstated an earlier German system of promotion and relegation, which had been in use from until From until , a different system had been used in which the bottom three finishers of the Bundesliga had been automatically relegated, to be replaced by the top three finishers in the 2.
From until two, or later three, teams had been relegated from the Bundesliga automatically, while promotion had been decided either completely or partially in promotion play-offs.
The season starts in early August  and lasts until late May, with a winter break of six weeks mid-December through to the end of January.
In recent years, games have been played on Saturdays five games beginning at 3: A new television deal in reintroduced a Friday game beginning at 8: Prior to the formation of the Bundesliga, German football was played at an amateur level in a large number of sub-regional leagues until, in , part-time semi- professionalism was introduced and only five regional Oberligen Premier Leagues remained.
Regional champions and runners-up played a series of playoff matches for the right to compete in a final game for the national championship.
At the international level the German game began to falter as German teams often fared poorly against professional teams from other countries.
The league fielded 14 teams with two relegation spots. The defeat of the national team by Yugoslavia 0—1 in a World Cup quarter-final game in Chile was one impetus of many towards the formation of a national league.
East Germany, behind the Iron Curtain, maintained its separate league structure. The first Bundesliga games were played on 24 August Dynamo Dresden and F.
Hansa Rostock were seeded into the top-tier Bundesliga division, with other clubs being sorted into lower tiers.
The German football champion is decided strictly by play in the Bundesliga. Each club plays every other club once at home and once away. Originally, a victory was worth two points, with one point for a draw and none for a loss.
Since the —96 season, a victory has been worth three points, while a draw remains worth a single point, and zero points are given for a loss. The club with the most points at the end of the season becomes German champion.
Currently, the top three clubs in the table qualify automatically for the group phase of the UEFA Champions League , while the fourth-place team enters the Champions League at the third qualifying round see overview.
The two teams at the bottom of the table are relegated into the 2. Bundesliga, while the top two teams in the 2. The 16th-placed team third-last , and the third-placed team in the 2.
Bundesliga play a two-leg play-off match. The winner of this match plays the next season in the Bundesliga, and the loser in the 2.
If two clubs are still tied after all of these tie-breakers have been applied, a single match is held at a neutral site to determine the placement.
However, this has never been necessary in the history of the Bundesliga. In terms of team selection, matchday squads must have no more than five non-EU representatives.
Seven substitutes are permitted to be selected, from which three can be used in the duration of the game. That year it was the only European football league where clubs collectively made a profit.
By contrast, in the other major European leagues, numerous high-profile teams have come under ownership of foreign billionaires, and a significant number of clubs have high levels of debt.
After the German Football Association and the Bundesliga mandated that all clubs run a youth academy , with the aim of bolstering the stream of local talent for the club and national team.
This allows more money to be spent on the players that are bought, and there is a greater chance to buy better instead of average players. In the first decade of the third millennium s , the Bundesliga was regarded as competitive, as five teams have won the league title.
At the end of each season, clubs in the Bundesliga must apply to the German Football Federation DFB for a licence to participate again the following year; only when the DFB, who have access to all transfer documents and accounts, are satisfied that there is no threat of insolvency do they give approval.
In addition, no individual is allowed to own more than 49 percent of any Bundesliga club, the only exceptions being VfL Wolfsburg , Bayer Leverkusen and current Regionalliga Nordost member FC Carl Zeiss Jena should they ever be promoted to the Bundesliga as they were each founded as factory teams.
Despite the good economic governance, there have still been some instances of clubs getting into difficulties. In subsequent years, the club went through extensive restructuring to return to financial health, largely with young home-grown players.
Based on its per-game average, the Bundesliga is the best-attended association football league in the world; out of all sports, its average of 45, fans per game during the —12 season was the second highest of any professional sports league worldwide, behind only the National Football League of the United States.
Many club stadia have large terraced areas for standing fans by comparison, stadia in the English Premier League are all-seaters due to the Taylor Report.
Match tickets often double as free rail passes which encourages supporters to travel and celebrate in a relaxed atmosphere. They are very fan orientated".
Football has got to be for everybody. The spectator figures for league for the last eleven seasons:. The Bundesliga broadcast rights are sold along with the broadcast rights to the Bundesliga Relegation Playoffs, 2.
Three Friday night matches — the openers of the first and second halves of the season, and on the final matchday before the winter break — are broadcast to all Germans on ZDF.
Radio coverage includes the national Konferenz whip-around coverage on the stations of ARD and full match coverage on local radio stations.
The Bundesliga is broadcast on TV in over countries. In October , 21st Century Fox , via the Fox Sports , Fox International Channels , and Sky plc divisions, acquired television and digital rights to the Bundesliga in 80 territories, including North America and Asia outside of India and Oceania for five years, and selected European territories for two years, beginning in the —16 season.
CEO James Murdoch explained that the deal was designed to "leverage our unrivaled global portfolio of sports channels to bolster the Bundesliga brand in every corner of the globe.
Spanish-language telecasts air on Fox Deportes. Matches stream online for subscribers to these channels on participating providers via Fox Sports Go , and are also available through the subscription service Fox Soccer Match Pass.
ITV4 broadcasts delayed highlights the following Monday. This arrangement lasts through the season. In , digital TV operator StarTimes acquired exclusive television rights for Sub-Saharan Africa for 5 years starting from season.
The league level below the 2. Bundesliga was changed profoundly in with the Oberligas replaced by the new Regionalligas, which allowed for direct promotion to the 2.
Bundesliga for the first time since The league itself was now reduced to 18 clubs with no play-offs, three promoted and four relegated teams, a system it would maintain until , when the play-offs were re-introduced.
Hansa Rostock won the 2. Bundesliga for the first time in and FC St. The later, despite finishing seventh, had its licence revoked, thereby sparing FSV Zwickau from relegation.
The —96 season saw VfL Bochum win the league again with second placed Arminia Bielefeld winning promotion straight after having been promoted from the Regionalliga the year before.
FC Kaiserslautern and Eintracht Frankfurt had suffered their first-ever relegation from the Bundesliga in The former won the league and bounced back immediately while Frankfurt remained at this level for another season.
Kaiserslautern would also become the first and only club to win the Bundesliga as a freshly promoted side the following year.
At the bottom end VfB Leipzig was one of three clubs from the east to be relegated, alongside SV Meppen , which dropped out of the league after eleven consecutive seasons there.
The —99 season saw the 1. In —01, the league was won by 1. Pauli was the third promoted team. SSV Ulm , freshly relegated from the Bundesliga, finished the season in 16th place and became insolvent.
FSV Mainz 05 was a newcomer to the Bundesliga. In second place Alemannia Aachen returned to the Bundesliga for the first time since Relegated that year were Dynamo Dresden , former East German power house, after a two-year stint in the league.
Landgraf had played a record 2. The —09 season saw the return of play-offs. The third placed team in the 2. Bundesliga now played the 16th placed team in the Bundesliga for a spot in that league.
At the other end of the table, the 16th placed 2. Bundesliga side would now also play the third placed team in the new 3. Liga , which had replaced the Regionalliga as the third division.
SC Freiburg and 1. FSV Mainz 05 were directly promoted that season while 1. Bundesliga place to SC Paderborn from the 3.
FC Kaiserslautern ended a four-year spell in the 2. Bundesliga in with a league championship, with FC St. The FC Augsburg finished third but was unable to overcome 1.
Hansa Rostock, in 16th place, dropped out of the 2. Bundesliga when it lost both play-off games to Ingolstadt After 15 consecutive seasons in the 2.
Karlsruher SC failed to remain in the 2. Bundesliga when it was relegated on away goal rule after two drawn games against Jahn Regensburg.
Hertha BSC won the 2. Bundesliga for the second time in three seasons in —13 and was accompanied up by Eintracht Braunschweig, who had not played in the Bundesliga since FC Kaiserslautern lost both games to Hoffenheim and thereby failed to get promoted.
Dynamo Dresden became the first 2. Bundesliga side in five attempts to hold onto their league place while 3. At the bottom end two eastern clubs were relegated, Dynamo Dresden and Energie Cottbus, while Arminia Bielefeld entered the relegation round.
The —15 season saw Ingolstadt 04 win the league and earn Bundesliga promotion for the first time while SV Darmstadt 98 finished second and returned to the Bundesliga for the first time since Both the Bundesliga and 2.
Bundesliga clubs retained their league membership. At the bottom end of the table SC Paderborn suffered consecutive relegations, becoming the sixth club to drop from the Bundesliga to the third tier in consecutive seasons.
In December , it was announced that for the first time, the 2. Bundesliga would be given its own logo, taking effect at the start of the —18 season.
Bundesliga had borrowed the Bundesliga logo for promotional and media purposes. Bundesliga gained its own logo to "strengthen the profile of the competition" and to better identify the league with fans, the media, and sponsors.
The most consistent team in the league, as of —16, is Alemannia Aachen , having won 1, points from 1, games.
Bundesliga experience had entered the league: Hamburger SV and 1. For details on the 2. Bundesliga —19 season, see here. Since the —07 season there is no longer a limit on non-EU players in the league.
The list of teams that earned promotion to and from the 2. Bundesliga or were relegated from the league:.
The most recent top goal scorers in the league: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see 2nd Bundesliga disambiguation.
Introduction of the 2. Promotion to the Bundesliga. Promotion to the Bundesliga , Promotion to the 2. Bundesliga , and List of clubs in the 2.
Bundesliga Nord to , accessed: Geschichte, Regeln, Rekorde in German www. Goals per round, accessed: Bundesliga players with record number of goals in a game, accessed: Top goal scorers by season, accessed: Bundesliga players with record number of games, accessed: Most goals in a game, accessed: Retrieved 16 May Promotion to Second Division achieved] in German.
Retrieved 25 May Retrieved 28 December Retrieved 12 May Ewige Tabelle in German Weltfussball. Retrieved 2 May All-time goal scorers list, accessed: Die torreichsten Spiele in German Weltfussball.
Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 21 May Retrieved 22 August Clubs Introduction Promotion to 2. Bundesliga Promotion to Bundesliga Top scorers.
Retrieved from " https: Bundesliga Association football leagues in Germany Professional sports leagues in Germany Second level football leagues in Europe.
Arminia Bielefeld Nord Darmstadt 98 , 1. Westfalia Herne , FC St. Arminia Bielefeld Nord 1. Pauli , Rot-Weiss Essen. Hannover 96 , Karlsruher SC.
Stuttgarter Kickers , FC St. Kickers Offenbach , Viktoria Aschaffenburg , 1. FSV Mainz 05 , 1. Bayer Uerdingen Nord 1. Hansa Rostock , FC St.
Chemnitzer FC , Hannover 96 , 1. Eintracht Frankfurt , SC Freiburg , 1.Salzburg zieht in der Bundesliga inzwischen davon, dahinter sind Sturm, Altach und die Austria nur vier Punkte getrennt. Pölten konzentrieren und dürfen nicht glauben, dass im eigenen Stadion alles von alleine klappt. Aber aufgrund der ersten Halbzeit, wo wir gut attackiert haben, geht er voll in Ordnung. Tadej Trdina geht vom WAC zum steirischen Regionalligisten Allerheiligen und versucht dort die letzten zwei Saisonen, die von schweren Verletzungen geprägt waren, vergessen zu machen. Der wieder in Form gekommene Schweizer schied schon nach 27 Minuten verletzt aus. Die Wölfe beendeten ihr Trainingslager auf Malta mit einem 1: Das Testspiel gewannen die Wölfe klar mit Das war noch zu wenig. Der WAC hat nach durchwachsenem Herbst jetzt erst einmal frei. Das besondere daran war, dass ohne Schiedsrichter gespielt wurde, weil der Fair-Play-Gedanke im Vordergrund stand. Diese Testspiele finden am Nachdem weniger Teams hier sind, ist es viel ruhiger. Der WAC ist nach dem 3: